copyright 1988 by Eric Pement
                             Nov. 28, 1988

   They close their eyes and lips.  For a minute or two, sitting with 
quiet focus, they breathe in great volumes of air, sucking up strength 
for a momentous journey.  Suddenly, another personality takes over and 
an alien voice speaks.

   Channeling has become one of the paramount landmarks of the New Age 
movement, eclipsing herbal cures, mundane astrology, and flotation 
tanks.  Now an integral part of the Aquarian scene, channelers seem to 
have multiplied geometrically in the past fifteen years.

   Trying to monitor this wave is an incredible task.  Its influence is 
propagated through multiple avenues -- radio and TV interviews, private 
channeling sessions, cassette distribution, videotape sales and 
rentals, newsletters, magazines, mass seminars, conferences, and an 
endless stream of channeled literature.  (They don't call it "automatic 
writing" for nothing.)  Net profits on all this have been estimated at 
from 100 to 400 million dollars annually. [1]

   Exactly what is it?  Jon Klimo, author of a sympathetic yet thorough 
survey of channeling, says it "is a phenomenon in which otherwise 
ordinary people seem to let themselves be taken over by, or in other 
ways receive messages from, another personality who uses them as a 
conduit, medium, or channel for the communication -- hence the term 
medium or channel." [2]

   One of the more popular channelers is J.Z. (Judy Zebra) Knight.  She 
channels Ramtha, also known as "the Ram," supposedly a 35,000-year-old 
being from Atlantis who invented the practice of war.  I like Martin 
Gardner's summary of Ramtha's story: "Slowly he came to realize that he 
himself was part of the God he hated.  After 63 OBEs [out-of-body 
experiences], his body vibrating faster than light, he became one with 
the wind.  On the side of Mount Indus, in Tibet, free of weight, he 
ascended into the Seventh Heaven, where he and God became one.  He is 
now part of an 'unseen brotherhood' of superbeings who love us and hear 
our prayers." [3]  Ramtha has made Knight a millionairess several times
over; she, in turn, has had Ramtha's name copyrighted to prevent anyone 
else from channeling him.

   Penny Torres and Jach Pursel are the two most popular rivals to J.Z. 
Knight.  Penny channels Mafu, "a highly evolved being from the seventh 
dimension, last seen on earth when he incarnated as a leper in 
first-century Pompeii." [4]  Mafu, like Ramtha, speaks with a Slavic
accent.  Meanwhile, Jach Pursel channels Lazaris, a "group being" from 
beyond time and space who has (have?) never been embodied in our 
dimension.  Lazaris speaks with a lisp.

   The range of "entities" supposedly being channeled today is 
virtually unlimited.  Spirit Speaks, a bimonthly magazine from 
California, is a Reader's Digest of messages from various channeled 
entities.  Some of its regular contributors include Dong How Li (a 
Tibetan monk last incarnated 2600 years ago), Gabriel (an angel), Dr.  
Peebles (a Scottish physician from the 1800s), and Zoosh ("a 
non-physical being from Alpha Centauri").

   An excellent survey of the channeling scene (from a Christian 
perspective) is provided in a recent book by John Ankerberg and John 
Weldon.  They note that the personalities being channeled "claim to be 
various aspects of the human mind or the 'collective' mind of humanity 
 . . . They also claim to be the Holy Spirit, troubled ghosts, the 
spirits of animals and plants (dolphins, trees, flowers), multiple 
human personalities, the inhabitants of mythical cultures (Atlanteans, 
Lemurians), and even a possible alien computer that exists in the 
future.  Critics, realizing that some people are claiming to channel 
dolphins, others the spirits of fruits and vegetables and still others 
computers from the future, have come to conclude the sanity of the 
nation is at risk." [5]


   Channeling activity, understood in its wider sense to include spirit 
possession in general, can be traced back to the earliest times and 
civilizations.  The acceptance of animism (the belief that spirits are 
present in all of nature, including plants, inert objects, and seasons) 
or the practice of ancestor veneration have provided primitive cultures 
with sufficient groundwork for the rise of spiritism.  Certainly, 
spirit mediumship, as well as attempts at spirit-control, can be seen 
in shamanism (the activities of the tribal witchdoctor, magician, or 
healer in controlling the forces/spirits of nature).

   Channeling can be traced back to the ancient religions of Egypt, 
India, and the Near East; thus, we should pay special attention to the 
Biblical injunctions on this topic.

   The commandments given to Moses after the Exodus from Egypt (about 
1400 B.C.) expressly forbid communication with "spirit mediums" (Lev.  
19:31) [6], or going to one who "inquires of the dead" (Deut. 18:11).
Mosaic law prescribed the death penalty both for the medium and for the 
person who sought out the medium for advice (Lev. 20:6, 27).  Indeed, 
one of the chief reasons that King Saul, the first king of Israel, was 
slain was for "going to one who had a familiar spirit, to inquire of 
it" (1 Chron. 10:13).  Seven hundred years after Mt. Sinai, in the days 
of Isaiah, the prohibition still remained.  Those who sought 
information from "mediums and wizards" were to be answered brusquely: 
"Should not a people seek their God instead?  Should they seek to the 
dead on behalf of the living?" (Isa. 8:19)

   In New Testament times, possession and control by discarnate spirits 
were accepted realities.  The actions of Jesus in casting out "demons" 
and "unclean spirits" are mentioned repeatedly in the New Testament 
(Matt. 8:28ff, 9:32ff, 12:22ff, 17:14ff, etc.).  Jesus likewise 
commissioned his apostles to cast out demons (Matt. 10:1) and gave this 
authority to others not numbered among the Twelve (Luke 10:17).  The 
early church continued to conduct exorcisms (Acts 8:7, 19:12).

   An interesting incident regarding a channeler appears in the 
sixteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.  While Paul and Silas 
were evangelizing in Philippi, a city of western Greece, they were 
persistently followed by a slave girl "with a spirit of divination" 
(Acts 16:16).  The Greek text literally reads a "python spirit" [Gk.  
pneuma puthona], a reference to an entity named The Python, which 
inhabited the high priestess of the temple of Apollo at Delphi.  
(Remember hearing about "the oracle of Delphi" in school?  That was 
her.)  "The Python" or "python spirit" later became a generic term for 
a discarnate entity which predicted the future.  The apostle Paul 
finally "turned and said to the spirit, 'I command you in the name of 
Jesus Christ to come out of her.'  And he came out that very hour." 
(Acts 16:18)

   It bears noting that this spirit of divination evidently could 
provide some genuine information (verse 16).  This was not a natural 
ability, nor was the woman using methods of fraud or "cold reading," 
because when Paul cast out the spirit, she lost her powers and the 
ability to make money for her owners (v. 19).  If the woman had been 
drawing upon a natural talent or using a swindle technique, she should 
still have been able to earn money by deception, as previously.  In any 
case, this was not a power the Lord wanted in her life, and through the 
authority of Jesus Christ it was cast out.


   For centuries, among monotheistic cultures spirit communication was 
usually limited to spirits of divine origin (God, Jesus, one of the 
angels, etc.).  Muhammad claimed multiple encounters with the angel 
Gabriel, whose messages are preserved in the Qur'an.  In the Middle 
Ages, Roman Catholic mystics were permitted visions and appearances of 
Jesus or the Virgin Mary.

   Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), the brilliant metallurgist, 
inventor and scientist of the eighteenth century, abandoned his career 
for spiritism.  Claiming to be in contact with angels, he wrote 
prodigious treatises and commentaries based on these visions and 
communications, and founded a major cultic movement influential among 
European and American intellectuals.  In nineteenth-century America 
several cults, such as the Mormons and the Shakers, claimed communion 
with angels or spirits of the dead.

   Mary Baker Eddy often attempted to distinguish Christian Science 
(which she founded) from spiritualism.  Yet she herself acted as a 
trance channeler briefly before "discovering" Christian Science (1866). 
In The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian 
Science, Georgine Milmine describes the experiences of Mary Baker 
Patterson (who later became Mrs. Eddy).  Mary Baker Patterson channeled 
the spirit of her dead brother Albert in 1864 (or claimed to, anyway).  
Milmine's book reproduces a photograph of automatic writing, 
purportedly from Albert, in Mary's hand. [7]  Two years later, in the
company of other spiritualists, Mrs. Patterson [Eddy] acted as a trance 
medium, this time claiming to channel only the spirits of the Apostles 
and of Jesus Christ. [8]

   The channeling floodgates opened in this country in the 
mid-nineteenth century with the advent of spiritualism, the attempt to 
communicate with spirits of the dead.  Historians almost universally 
trace the origin of the spiritualist movement to 1848 in Hydesville, 
New York, with the Fox sisters, Margaret and Kate.

   Margaret was 14 and Kate was 11 when they first heard the sounds of 
knocking, furniture being moved, and other sounds in various rooms of 
their home, in late 1847. [9]  At these times, their beds would vibrate
and shake without any reason.  The children were terrified and Mrs.  
Fox's hair turned white through this ordeal. [10]

   On the night of March 31, 1848, 12-year-old Kate challenged these 
unseen powers to repeat the snaps of her fingers, which they did.  Each 
number of snaps would be followed by the same number of raps, and thus 
the girls began to communicate with the spirits.  News spread rapidly, 
and the family home was visited by interested writers and curiosity 
seekers.  The sisters began to hold seances, communicating with the 
spirits by means of a simple code.  In mid-April, Kate's parents sent 
her away to live with her older sister Leah in Rochester, N.Y., hoping 
to quell the disruption it had caused the family.  (The spirits were 
usually more active in Kate's presence.) The rappings immediately 
spread to Leah's house, and Leah also became a believer.

   The first message the Fox sisters received was this:

      Dear friends, you must proclaim these truths to the world.  
      This is the dawning of a new era, and you must not try to conceal 
      it any longer.  When you do your duty, God will protect you and 
      good spirits will watch over you. [11]

   Fascination with spiritualism spread like wildfire, and within 30 
years there were tens of thousands of spiritualists in the U.S., 
England, and across Europe, and national organizations were formed.  In 
1855 the first national spiritualist newspaper was issued in England; 
in 1866 a national conference was held in Rhode Island, where 
resolutions were passed that citizens should abandon all Christian 
ordinances and worship and close down all Sunday schools.  In 1870, Sir 
William Crookes, famed British scientist who invented the Crookes tube 
(forerunner of the modern picture tube), called on the nation's 
scientists to investigate spiritualism.  Seeking to contact his dead 
daughter, Crookes was convinced of spiritualism's validity.

   Queen Victoria consulted several mediums, hoping to speak with her 
late husband Prince Albert, who died in 1861.  Seances were held at the 
White House under Lincoln's presidency.  British prime minister William 
E.  Gladstone, Canadian prime minister MacKenzie King, and Sir Arthur 
Conan Doyle (creator of Sherlock Holmes) were all converts to 

   Famed magician and escape artist Harry Houdini tried to prevent 
Conan Doyle from being duped by crank mediums, but Doyle remained 
convinced that the spiritualists had true supernatural powers.  He 
believed spiritualism was "a new revelation" to mankind.

   "Christianity must be modified by this new revelation," Doyle wrote, 
referring to spiritualism and psychic phenomena generally.  "One can 
see no justice in a vicarious sacrifice, nor in the God who could be 
placated by such means.  Above all, many cannot understand such 
expressions as the 'redemption from sin,' 'cleansed by the blood of the 
Lamb,' and so forth." [12]

   Houdini's 1924 autobiography, Houdini: A Magician Among the 
Spirits, is a fascinating account of the origins and numerous frauds 
connected with nineteenth-century spiritualism.  After over thirty 
years of research, he wrote, "I have accumulated one of the largest 
libraries in the world on psychic phenomena, Spiritualism, magic, 
witchcraft, demonology, evil spirits, etc., some of the material going 
as far back as 1489, . . . but nothing I ever read concerning the 
so-called Spiritualistic phenomena has impressed me as being 
genuine." [13]

   It was not Houdini, however, who struck the greatest blow against 
spiritualism.  A shattering revelation had come a generation earlier, 
from Margaret and Kate Fox themselves.

   Forty years after the Fox sisters told the world of the spirit 
rappings, both confessed they were frauds.  On October 21, 1888, 
54-year-old Margaret Fox gave a public confession at the New York 
Academy of Music, before an audience of over two thousand people.  
Standing in her stocking feet on a small pine table on the stage, she 
produced loud, distinct raps which could be heard throughout the 
building.  Her sister likewise gave consent.  That same year, she told 
a crowd, "I am here tonight, as one of the founders of Spiritualism, to 
denounce it as absolute falsehood .  . . the most wicked blasphemy the 
world has ever known." [14]

   One year later, they changed their minds, and both recanted their 
previous confessions!  They claimed the spirit manifestations had 
always been genuine, and they had never tricked anyone with false 
knocks or raps, retracting all they had said in 1888.  The Fox sisters 
had become alcoholics in the 1860s, and fellow spiritualists claimed 
their confessions had been bought off.  The last years of their lives 
were spent in drunkenness, and their public speech now contained little 
more than profanity.  Both died as alcoholics, Kate in 1892 and 
Margaret in 1893, both cursing God as they died. [15]

   Spiritualism by no means disappeared with the death of the Fox 
sisters.  In fact, it diversified into spiritualist sects which 
could be rationalistic (strongly anti-Christian), average (mildly 
anti-Christian), and strongly religious, complete with sacraments and 
baptism.  The spiritualist movement also provided the impetus for the 
study of psychic research and parapsychology.

   The early quarter of the twentieth century witnessed the epiphany 
of a few shining stars in the astral firmament.  Two of these were 
channeled books, the other was the so-called "sleeping prophet," Edgar 
Cayce (1877-1945).

   Cayce was raised in rural Kentucky.  His parents were Campbellites.  
He claimed to see "little people" as a child.  The turning point in his 
life occurred in 1901, at the age of 24.  Cayce had been suffering from 
a chronic case of laryngitis and voice loss after contracting a cold a 
year earlier.  In desperation, he turned to a hypnotist, Al Layne.  
After Cayce had entered a deep trance, Layne asked him to diagnose the 
cause of his hoarseness.

   "Immediately the fateful words came forth: 'Yes, we can see the 
body.'  The voice diagnosed the problem as insufficient circulation.  
Layne gave a suggestion that the body cure itself.  Cayce's neck grew 
pink, then bright red.  Twenty minutes later, it became normal again.  
Layne told Cayce to wake up, and when he did, his voice had returned." 
[16]  So goes the story in the Cayce biographies.

   Cayce's life was changed permanently.  News of this story spread, 
and Cayce's neighbors asked him to diagnose their diseases for them.  
Cayce learned how to put himself in a trance state fairly quickly, and 
after he appeared to fall asleep, the voice would take over and 
prescribe various unorthodox cures which always seemed to work.  
Eventually, the questioners began to ask him about spiritual matters, 
and from then on Cayce channeled metaphysical "truths," promoting 
reincarnation, monism, astrology, gnosticism, Atlantis, mediumship, 
etc.  Cayce's followers were devoted to these "readings," and over 
14,000 trance sessions have been transcribed, cataloged, and indexed 
since his death.  This material forms a vast body of occult reference 
material which has been used for decades.

   Equally potent has been The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ, 
published in 1907, channeled through Levi Dowling, who was purportedly 
empowered to read the "Akashic Records" (a scribal form of the 
Universal Mind, containing all the history of the universe).  Levi's 
Aquarian Gospel has provided a mythical history of the life of Christ 
picked up by many cults and New Age devotees.  It describes a 
reincarnated Jesus, who attained Christ consciousness after visiting 
Egypt, Greece, and India, during the so-called "silent years" before 
his public ministry in Palestine. [17]

   For a book supposedly transcribed from the Akashic records, The 
Aquarian Gospel is riddled with error, beginning from its first verse. 
It says "Herod Antipas was ruler of Jerusalem" when Jesus was born.  
That should have been Herod the Great, not Herod Antipas.  It has Jesus 
visiting Lahore in Pakistan (31.1); Lahore didn't historically exist 
until 600 years later.  It shows Jesus visiting magicians in Persepolis 
(39.1); Persepolis was destroyed by Alexander the Great in 330 B.C. and 
was never rebuilt.  Nonetheless, this book has been adopted by many 
unwitting readers as "proof" of a secret occult past for Jesus Christ.

   The Urantia Book was also obtained through trance channeling.  Its 
unknown author served as a medium for dozens of extraterrestrial 
intelligences, beginning in the early 1900s.  ("Urantia" is the name 
these space beings give to the planet earth.) Ironically, it was a 
Seventh-day Adventist minister and physician, who had spent over a 
decade debunking and refuting spiritualism, who was ultimately 
responsible for the publication of the Urantia papers.  Dr. William 
Sadler finally found a channeler he couldn't expose as a fraud, whose 
entities were utterly inexplicable.

   Beginning in 1923, Dr. Sadler invited a group of friends, informally 
known as The Forum, to examine and question these intelligences, which 
were rapidly becoming more numerous.  The channeler began producing 
automatic writing in response to their questions, and eleven years 
later these papers were completed.  The entities asked Dr. Sadler, by 
now a true believer, that the work be published, though it wasn't until 
1955 that the 2100-page volume made it into print. [18]  The Urantia
Book has influenced thousands of people, and is fully consistent with 
New Age ideology.


   It would be hard to say just where "modern" channeling practices 
should be dated from, but I'm inclined to point to the Seth material, 
channeled through the late Jane Roberts (died 1984).  Jane, a housewife 
and would-be writer, first encountered "Seth" through a spontaneous 
experience in September 1963.  Jane said "a fantastic avalanche of 
radical, new ideas burst into my head with tremendous force," not 
unlike an LSD trip. [19]

   Jane transmitted this material for over twenty years and, like most 
channeled writing, it is amazingly consistent with New Age philosophy 
(reality is a construct of our minds, etc.).  Jane Roberts was the 
first contemporary channeler to gain widespread acceptance in the 
1970s, and since then the volume of channelers and channeled writings 
has fallen on our society like a deluge.

   How does channeling fit in the larger picture?  We interviewed Joel 
Bjorling, author of a forthcoming bibliography on channeling.  Since 
he's up to his eyeballs in studying channeled writings, we asked him 
how contemporary channeling differs from its nineteenth-century 
predecessor.  He pointed out that in terms of content (i.e., what is 
taught), both have the same philosophy and share a common root.  The 
outward phenomenon is also similar -- in both cases, a disembodied 
entity speaks through the channeler, usually in a trance state.

   One difference this author has observed is that the spiritualist 
movement focused on seances (dim lights, formal invocations, etc.) and 
supernatural manifestations -- table lifting, "direct voice" phenomena, 
ectoplasm, materialized writing or faces, etc.  By contrast, today's 
channelers do everything under bright lights, usually on stage, and the 
only visible event is when an alien personality takes them over.  The 
channelers usually don't exhibit the powers or physical phenomena, such 
as levitation, that were present in spiritualism.  (This may be due to 
the development of infrared photography, but that's another matter.)

   The basic themes have also differed.  In spiritualism, the emphasis 
was on "proof of survival" after death, and the public largely sought 
reassurance that their deceased loved ones were happy in the Great 
Beyond.  In modern channeling, the focus is on "higher intelligences" 
who have come to teach us Truth, showing us how to alter reality and 
achieve self-fulfillment.

   Modern channeling centers around certain themes: (1) we are all 
God(s), (2) there is no death, (3) reality is a product of the mind, 
(4) prosperity is our right and "we can have it all," and (5) we must 
preserve the earth from nuclear or ecological catastrophe.  This last 
point is especially prevalent among UFO contactees, who communicate 
telepathically with various "space brothers" (their term).  The UFOs 
generally warn that continued testing of nuclear weapons will disturb 
the earth's rotation or cause some kind of interplanetary disaster.  
The space brothers are also concerned about environmental pollution on 
our own planet.

   Despite the differences between the two movements, both 
spiritualists and channelers are agreed that the traditional Christian 
concept of God is false.  Consider the following statement:

     Agreement [among channelers] can be said to exist on one
     point only, namely, that the historic Christian doctrine
     respecting the nature and character of the Deity is an
     imposition, the fabric of an artificial scholastic
     philosophy, and contradicted by sound reason as well as
     by the unanimous testimony of the spirit world. It is 
     certainly a remarkable fact that on this point the
     higher intelligences are strangely unanimous and emphatic
     in their statements, and all spiritualists are agreed. [20]

   Though this observation seems strikingly contemporary, it was 
actually written over 80 years ago, in an analysis of the spiritualist 
movement.  We believe the parallels are too close to be coincidental.

                          CONCLUDING REMARKS

   Is all channeling Satanic?  In the direct sense, no.  Many 
channelers are not communicating with any spirit, but are simply 
hucksters who have "learned the rap" and are capitalizing on the 
current fascination with discarnate intelligences.  J.Z. Knight may be 
one such person -- former followers testify to having seen her practice 
Ramtha's mannerisms, speech patterns, and accent.

   Personally, I have adopted Occam's Razor when dealing with most 
supernatural claims.  Named after William of Occam, this principle of 
logic states that when several explanations or solutions to a problem 
are possible, the simplest is to be preferred to the more complex.  As 
he phrased it, "Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity." 
William was undoubtedly using "entities" as a synonym for explanations, 
but in this context I find the phraseology excruciatingly apropos.

   Some channelers may not be intentional fakers, but self-deceived 
instead.  I have known individuals who couldn't tell the difference 
between their own wayward thoughts and the voice of God.  Stream-of-
consciousness musings and personal urges have been mistaken by some for 
divine revelation.  Self-deception of this sort can range all the way 
to outright mental illness.

   I also don't discount the possibility that some trance channeling 
may arise from a one's own unconscious self-will.  For instance, a 
voice which claims to be Sushi from Napaj, a deity of great power and 
pomp, may simply spring from the inner fantasies of the unregenerate 
mind.  Those who believe in man's depravity should consider that man's 
own evil heart may well be the source of the channelers' vulgar 

   Yet we cannot deny the reality of the spiritual realm.  Both 
Scripture and experience show that certain phenomena can only be 
accounted for by demonic spirits.  History records intrusions of the 
demonic throughout all times and cultures, and we have no less an 
authority than the Lord Jesus Christ himself who testifies to the 
reality of this fact -- and to his own power to save men from the 
powers of darkness.

   In the preceding discussion, though Satan need not be the immediate 
source of a channeled message, he may be the remote cause behind it.  
Jesus called Satan "a liar and the father of it" (John 8:44) and 
Satan's parentage to occult sin is sure even though it may not be 
immediate.  On one level, whether channeling is "real" or "faked" is 
immaterial; the person who seeks after "mediums and spiritists to 
prostitute himself by following them" will be alienated from the 
presence of God and subject to judgment (Lev. 20:6).

   A man may forfeit his soul for counterfeit money just as surely as 
for "real" money.  But the effect of each loss will be the same, 
regardless of the currency used.  And in like manner, ultimately it's 
not the medium of exchange which matters but the consequences of the 

REFERENCES: 1. Katharine Lowry, "Channelers," OMNI, Oct. 1987, p. 50. 2. Jon Klimo, CHANNELING: INVESTIGATIONS ON RECEIVING INFORMATION FROM PARANORMAL SOURCES (Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987), p. 1. 3. Martin Gardner, THE NEW AGE: NOTES OF A FRINGE WATCHER (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1988), p. 195. 4. Brooks Alexander, "Theology from the Twilight Zone," CHRISTIANITY TODAY, Sept. 18, 1987, p. 22. 5. John Ankerberg and John Weldon, THE FACTS ON SPIRIT GUIDES (Eugene, Ore: Harvest House Publishers, 1988), p. 16. 6. The Hebrew word here translated "mediums" (NASV) or "them that have familiar spirits" (KJV) is the Hebrew word 'obh. It appears 16 times in the OT and was used to indicate both spirits and spirit mediums. 7. Georgine Milmine, THE LIFE OF MARY BAKER G. EDDY AND THE HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN SCIENCE (1909: rpt. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1971), pp. 64-68. 8. Milmine, pp. 111, 115-116. 9. The exact year the raps began is dispute (1846-48); 1847 seems most accepted and the birthdates of the sisters is not certain. 10. This account of spiritualism has been taken from several reliable sources and reference books. The reference to Mrs. Fox's hair turning white comes from Raphael Gasson, THE CHALLENGING COUNTERFEIT (Plainfield, NJ: Logos, 1966), p. 47. 11. Gasson, p. 48; also cited in Klimo, p. 98; and in Nandor Fordor, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHIC SCIENCE, London, 1934, ad loc. 12. Arthur Conan Doyle, THE NEW REVELATION (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1918), pp. 70, 71. 13. Harry Houdini, HOUDINI: A MAGICIAN AMONG THE SPIRITS (1924: rpt. New York, Arno Press, 1972), p. xix. 14. Gasson, p. 48. 15. Gasson, p. 49. 16. Gary North, UNHOLY SPIRITS: OCCULTISM AND NEW AGE HUMANISM (Fort Worth: Dominion Press, 1986), p. 198. 17. See Per Beskow, STRANGE TALES ABOUT JESUS (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985), for good summaries of this "gospel" and other pseudo-scriptural forgeries. 18. Steve Cannon, "Evaluating the Urantia Book," PFO NEWSLETTER (quarterly newsletter of Personal Freedom Outreach, St. Louis, Mo.), vol. 7 (Oct.-Dec. 1987): pp. 4-6. 19. cited by Klimo, p. 30. 20. J. Godfrey Raupert, MODERN SPIRITISM (London: Sands & Co., 1904), pp. 210-211.